Nine Events of Instruction

INSRUCTIONAL DESIGN LEARNING THEORY


ROBERT GAGNE'S EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION

Definition/Description:The Events of Instruction are to be interpreted as a subset of the overall process of instructional design, and focus on mental learning. Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction theory identifies the conditions that are necessary for learning to occur (LH). *This learning is broken down into nine components that require some kind of mastery to move from one step to another. Each of these components addresses a specific cognitive process. Gagne also stresses the importance of Instructor's guidance in this whole process.(KB) Gagne's nine instructional events are as follows:

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1) Gain attention
2) Inform learner of objectives
3) Stimulate recall of prior learning
4) Present content
5) Provide learning guidance
6) Practice
7) Provide feedback
8) Assess performance
9) Enhance retention and transfer to the job

This learning theory is very important and crucial in the creation of effective instruction because it makes known all the conditions that need to be present for opitmal learning, therefore leading to optimal effectivieness in the creation of materials (LH).


USES

  • Can be utilized in many situations since it caters to many different types and levels of learning
  • Followed by business professionals, industry workers, educational settings and the military
  • Flexibile - events can be adapted to cater to different learning situations
  • Great for a diverse group of students who may have many different learning styles(KB)
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EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION

LESSON: Teach third grade students how to find books in the fiction section of the media center.

Instructional Event Training Activity
Gaining Attention Farmer Frannie (media specialist) introduces herself and reads the story “Wild about Books.”
Informing learner of the objective(s) Talk about how they will learn to search for fiction books in the library
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning Have 3rd graders recall how they found books in the “everybody” section of the library
Presenting the stimulus material Demonstrate to the students how they find books in the Fiction section
Providing Learning Guidance Provide a visual map for each student to show them the location of the fiction books
Eliciting the performance Students will each search for a specific book in the fiction section
Providing feedback about performance Students will practice this skill with partner and teacher/media specialist as facilitators
Assessing performance Media specialist will check off who was able to locate their book
Enhancing retention and transfer Reinforce this skill every week and then transfer this skill in location non-fiction books in the media center

LESSON #2: Teaching 5th grade students how to navigate the Encyclopedia Britannica database to be able to find the answer to a specific inquiry question.(KB)

Number Event of Instruction Training Activity
1. Gaining attention Media Specialist(MS) poses a thought-provoking question that students need to answer
2. Informing leaners of objectives MS displays on screen that students will be learning about how to access and find information in a database using keywords
3. Stimulating recall Ask students what kinds of tools they use to get information
4. Presenting stimulus Show students what the database looks like and do a practice search for something they shout out
5. Providing feedback Give students a scavenger hunt with the inquiry questions on it example keywords
6. Eliciting performance Students will perform their scavenger hunts individually and with guidance
7. Providing feedback MS will walk around and check their answers as they go. They can also work with a partner
8. Assessing perfomance MS will collect papers and assess who was able to find the correct information using the prompts given
9. Enhancing retention & transfer Students will return the next week to use their new skills to research a topic in their classroom using a database of their choice

LESSON #3: Teach adults how to set a formal place setting. (LH)

Instructional Event Training Activity
Gaining Attention Attention can be gained by providing examples of how this information is necessary and relevant to the lives of the learners. If it is something they need to know and will be useful in thier lives, they will be likely to stay focused and retain information that is being presented. Colorful photographs of examples would be good opening examples to use to capavate and interest the audience
Informing learner of the objective(s) What new information they will be receiving
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning Previous knowledge in this example would include knowing what different utensils and dishes are and the basic used of them. For example, knowing how to use a fork, knife, or a glass
Presenting the stimulus material This lesson will present learners with how to set a formal place setting and fold an orgami napkin. Using lecture and visual instruction along with opportunites for practice will be used.
Providing Learning Guidance Providing guidance can be done while learners are practicing
Eliciting the performance Students will each show they can perform the tasks shown to them
Providing feedback about performance Students will practice while instructors answer questions and comment where needed
Assessing performance Trainers will ensure that the table was set correctly and the napkin was folded correctly.
Enhancing retention and transfer Remembering where utensils, plates, and glassware go will be a main objective of the lesson and helpful ways to recall this information will be provided to conclude the training

REFERENCES(KB) (LH)

Alutu, A. N. G. (2006, March). The guidance role of the instructor in the teaching and learning process. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(1), 44-49. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Denton, J. J., Armstrong, D. G., & Savage, T. V. (1980). Matching Events of Instruction
to Objectives. Theory Into Practice, 19(1), 10. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Kearsley, G. (2011). The theories. In Explorations in learning & instruction: The theory into practice database (condition of learning). Retrieved June 28, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/‌gagne.html.

Kruse, K. Gagne’s nine events of instruction: An introduction. E-Learning Guru. Retrieved form
http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm

National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). School, college & library search. In Search for public schools. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences website: http://nces.ed.gov/‌ccd/‌schoolsearch.

Pinfan, Z., & St. Amant, K. (2010, June). An application of Robert Gagne's nine events of instruction to the teaching of website localization. Journal of Technical Writing & Communication, 40(3), 337-362.

Reyes, D. (1990). Models of instruction. Clearing House, 63(5), 214. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database

Tsai, C. Application of the Events of Instruction in the Gagné-Briggs ISD Model: A Design Example in Language Instruction. Retrieved from http://ir.lib.wtuc.edu.tw:8080/dspace/bitstream/987654321/207/1/651-Application%20of%20the%20Events%20of%20Instruction%20in%20the%20Gagn_.pdf

Wilson, R. (1978). The implications of selective learning models on teaching junior high school
mathematics. Education, 99(1), Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database

Zemke, R. (1999, July). Towards a science of training. Training, 36.7(2), 32. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/‌gtx/‌start.do?prodId=PROF&userGroupName=stcloud_main.

Created by Karin Bernal, Lindsey Hess